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Children under Dark Skies

 

dark skies matter

Children are our future. 

Astronomy was the first science, created by curious humans looking up in awe at changes in the night sky. We owe it to our children to provide them with equal opportunities for observation and science by bringing back our night sky. 

Dark skies help plants and animals

Turtles

Dark Ranger, Kevin Poe, explains how light pollution affects baby sea turtles and provides ways in which we can help them successfully make their journey from the shore to the ocean.

Birds

 The state of New York is to turn off non-essential lights in state-run buildings to help birds navigate their migratory routes in spring and autumn. Migrating birds are believed to use stars to navigate but they can be disorientated by electric lights, causing them to crash into buildings.

Insects

Learn why bugs are so attracted to light. Ever wonder why your porch light is covered at night with insects and moths? 

Plants

Now it looks like light pollution is influencing plant life cycles on the ground in an unexpected way – by changing the starting date of spring.Farmers and horticulturalists in the UK have noticed that spring is arriving earlier over the past few years in urban areas – up to 7.5 days earlier this year.

Dark skies help our health

AMA report

 On June 14 2016, physicians at the American Medical Association's annual meeting issued guidelines on how communities can choose LED streetlights to "minimize potential harmful human health and environmental effects." 

 

 

© Finley-Holiday Films. Bryce Canyon Night Sky Timelapse. 2016.

© Pixabay.com. 2016.

van Rijn, Rembrandt. The Night Watch. 1642. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 


Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein. London: Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor & Jones, 1818.


Night and the City. Dir. Jules Dassin. Screenplay by Jo Eisinger. Perf. Harry Fabian and Mary Bristol.

Night and the City. Dir. Jules Dassin. Screenplay by Jo Eisinger. Perf. Harry Fabian and Mary Bristol.


Goya, Francisco. The Third of May 1808. 1814. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. 


Acquainted with the Night

I have been one acquainted with the night. 
I have walked out in rainand back in rain. 
I have outwalked the furthest city light. 

I have looked down the saddest city lane. 
I have passed by the watchman on his beat
And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain. 

I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet
When far away an interrupted cry
Came over houses from another street, 

But not to call me back or say good-bye; 
And further still at an unearthly height, 
One luminary clock against the sky 

Proclaimed the time was neither wrong nor right. 
I have been one acquainted with the night.

Frost, Robert. "Acquainted with the Night." The Poetry of Robert Frost. Ed. Edward Connery Lathem. New York: Henry Holt, 1979.


Blakelock, Ralph Albert. Moonlight. 1886. Corcoran Gallery of  Art, Washington, DC.



James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1898.

James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1898.


Whistler, James Abbott McNeill. Nocturne in Black and Gold. 1875-77. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI. 


The Postman Always Rings Twice. Dir. Tay Garnett. Screenplay by Harry Ruskin and Niven Busch. Perf. Lana Turner and John Garfield.

The Postman Always Rings Twice. Dir. Tay Garnett. Screenplay by Harry Ruskin and Niven Busch. Perf. Lana Turner and John Garfield.


The First Night

The worst thing about death must be
the first night.
    —Juan Ramón Jiménez

Before I opened you, Jiménez,
it never occurred to me that day and night
would continue to circle each other in the ring of death,

but now you have me wondering
if there will also be a sun and a moon
and will the dead gather to watch them rise and set

then repair, each soul alone,
to some ghastly equivalent of a bed.
Or will the first night be the only night,

a darkness for which we have no other name?
How feeble our vocabulary in the face of death,
How impossible to write it down.

This is where language will stop,
the horse we have ridden all our lives
rearing up at the edge of a dizzying cliff.

The word that was in the beginning
and the word that was made flesh—
those and all the other words will cease.

Even now, reading you on this trellised porch,
how can I describe a sun that will shine after death?
But it is enough to frighten me

into paying more attention to the world’s day-moon,
to sunlight bright on water
or fragmented in a grove of trees,

and to look more closely here at these small leaves,
these sentinel thorns,
whose employment it is to guard the rose.

Collins, Billy. "The First Night" Ballistics: Poems. New York: Random House, 2010.

Tanizaki, Jun'ichirō. In Praise of Shadows. Trans. Thomas Harper and Edward Seidensticker. Sedgwick, ME: Leete's Island Books, 1977. 

Tanizaki, Jun'ichirō. In Praise of Shadows. Trans. Thomas Harper and Edward Seidensticker. Sedgwick, ME: Leete's Island Books, 1977. 


Remington, Frederic. The Hunters' Supper. 1909. National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, OK. 



Magritte, René. The Empire of Light. 1953-54. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. 


Bronfen, Elisabeth. Night Passages: Philosophy, Literature, and Film. Trans. David Brenner. New York: Columbia, NY, 2008.

Bronfen, Elisabeth. Night Passages: Philosophy, Literature, and Film. Trans. David Brenner. New York: Columbia, NY, 2008.


Millet, Jean-François. Hunting Birds at Night. 1874. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA. 

Millet, Jean-François. Hunting Birds at Night. 1874. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA. 


Night Funeral in Harlem

    Night funeral
    In Harlem:

    Where did they get
    Them two fine cars?

Insurance man, he did not pay—
His insurance lapsed the other day—
Yet they got a satin box
for his head to lay.

    Night funeral
    In Harlem:

    Who was it sent
    That wreath of flowers?

Them flowers came
from that poor boy’s friends—
They’ll want flowers, too,
When they meet their ends.

    Night funeral
    in Harlem:

    Who preached that
    Black boy to his grave?

Old preacher man
Preached that boy away—
Charged Five Dollars
His girl friend had to pay.

Night funeral
In Harlem:

When it was all over
And the lid shut on his head
and the organ had done played
and the last prayers been said
and six pallbearers
Carried him out for dead
And off down Lenox Avenue
That long black hearse done sped,
    The street light
    At his corner
    Shined just like a tear—
That boy that they was mournin’
Was so dear, so dear
To them folks that brought the flowers,
To that girl who paid the preacher man—
It was all their tears that made
    That poor boy’s
    Funeral grand.

    Night funeral
    In Harlem.

Hughes, Langston. "Night Funeral in Harlem." The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Ed. Arnold Rampersad. New York: Vintage Classics, 1995.

van Gogh, Vincent. Starry Night Over the Rhone. 1888. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.


The Big Sleep. Dir. Howard Hawks. Screenplay by William Faulkner, Leigh Brackett, and Jules Furthman. Perf. Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall.

The Big Sleep. Dir. Howard Hawks. Screenplay by William Faulkner, Leigh Brackett, and Jules Furthman. Perf. Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall.


Walpole, Horace. The Castle of Otranto.  London: William Bathoe. 1764.

Walpole, Horace. The Castle of Otranto.  London: William Bathoe. 1764.



Star-Talk

'Are you awake, Gemelli, 
This frosty night?' 
'We'll be awake till reveillé, 
Which is Sunrise,' say the Gemelli, 
'It's no good trying to go to sleep: 
If there's wine to be got we'll drink it deep, 
But rest is hopeless to-night, 
But rest is hopeless to-night.' 

'Are you cold too, poor Pleiads, 
This frosty night?' 
'Yes, and so are the Hyads: 
See us cuddle and hug,' say the Pleiads, 
'All six in a ring: it keeps us warm: 
We huddle together like birds in a storm: 
It's bitter weather to-night, 
It's bitter weather to-night.' 

'What do you hunt, Orion, 
This starry night?' 
'The Ram, the Bull and the Lion, 
And the Great Bear,' says Orion, 
'With my starry quiver and beautiful belt
I am trying to find a good thick pelt
To warm my shoulders to-night, 
To warm my shoulders to-night. 

'Did you hear that, Great She-bear, 
This frosty night? 
'Yes, he's talking of stripping me bare
Of my own big fur,' says the She-bear, 
'I'm afraid of the man and his terrible arrow: 
The thought of it chills my bones to the marrow, 
And the frost so cruel to-night! 
And the frost so cruel to-night!' 

'How is your trade, Aquarius, 
This frosty night?' 
'Complaints is many and various
And my feet are cold,' says Aquarius, 
'There's Venus objects to Dolphin-scales, 
And Mars to Crab-spawn found in my pails, 
And the pump has frozen to-night, 
And the pump has frozen to-night.'

Graves, Robert. "Star-Talk." The Year's at the Spring. New York: Brentano's, 1920.

Hopper, Edward. Nighthawks. 1942. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL. 


Stoker, Bram. Dracula. London: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897.

Stoker, Bram. Dracula. London: Archibald Constable and Company, 1897.


He Walked By Night. Dir. Alfred Werker. Screenplay by Crane Wilbur and John C. Higgins. Perf. Richard Basehart and Scott Brady.

He Walked By Night. Dir. Alfred Werker. Screenplay by Crane Wilbur and John C. Higgins. Perf. Richard Basehart and Scott Brady.


Poe, Edgar Allan. The Fall of the House of Usher. Philadelphia, PA: Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, 1839.

Poe, Edgar Allan. The Fall of the House of Usher. Philadelphia, PA: Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, 1839.

Night

THE sun descending in the west,
  The evening star does shine;
The birds are silent in their nest.
  And I must seek for mine.
    The moon, like a flower
    In heaven's high bower,
    With silent delight
    Sits and smiles on the night.

Farewell, green fields and happy grove,
  Where flocks have took delight:
Where lambs have nibbled, silent move
  The feet of angels bright;
    Unseen they pour blessing
    And joy without ceasing
    On each bud and blossom
    And each sleeping bosom.

They look in every thoughtless nest
  Where birds are cover'd warm:
They visit caves of every beast,
  To keep them all from harm:
    If they see any weeping
    That should have been sleeping,
    They pour sleep in their head,
    And sit down by their bed.

When wolves and tigers howl for prey,
  They pitying stand and weep,
Seeking to drive their thirst away
  And keep them from the sheep.
    But, if they rush dreadful,
    The angels, most heedful,
    Receive each mild spirit,
    New worlds to inherit.

And there the lions ruddy eyes
  Shall flow with tears of gold:
And pitying the tender cries,
  And walking round the fold:
    Saying, 'Wrath, by His meekness,
    And, by His health, sickness,
    Are driven away
    From our immortal day.

'And now beside thee, bleating lamb,
  I can lie down and sleep,
Or think on Him who bore thy name,
  Graze after thee, and weep.
    For, wash'd in life's river,
    My bright mane for ever
    Shall shine like the gold
    As I guard o'er the fold.'

Blake, William. "Night." The Oxford Book of English Verse. Ed. Christopher Ricks. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Woolf, Virginia. Night and Day. London: Duckworth, 1898.

Woolf, Virginia. Night and Day. London: Duckworth, 1898.



Rousseau, Henri. The Sleeping Gypsy. 1897. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. 


Wharton, Edith. Twilight Sleep. New York: Pictorial Review Company, 1927. 

Wharton, Edith. Twilight Sleep. New York: Pictorial Review Company, 1927. 


Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Thomas, Dylan. "Do not go gentle into that good night." The Poems of Dylan Thomas. Ed. Daniel Jones. New York: New Directions, 2003.

Ryder, Albert Pinkahm. Moonlit Cove. 1880-85. The Phillips Connection, Washington, DC. 


Laura. Dir. Otto Preminger. Screenplay by Vera Caspary, Jay Dratler, and Betty Reinhardt. Perf. Gene Tierney and Dana Andrews.


van Gogh, Vincent. The Starry Night. 1889. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. 

van Gogh, Vincent. The Starry Night. 1889. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. 


Brontë, Emily. Wuthering Heights. London: Thomas Cautley Newby. 1847.

Brontë, Emily. Wuthering Heights. London: Thomas Cautley Newby. 1847.


Dover Beach

The sea is calm to-night.
The tide is full, the moon lies fair
Upon the straits; on the French coast the light
Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand;
Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.
Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!
Only, from the long line of spray
Where the sea meets the moon-blanched land,
Listen! you hear the grating roar
Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,
At their return, up the high strand,
Begin, and cease, and then again begin,
With tremulous cadence slow, and bring
The eternal note of sadness in.

Sophocles long ago
Heard it on the A gaean, and it brought
Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow
Of human misery; we
Find also in the sound a thought,
Hearing it by this distant northern sea.

The Sea of Faith
Was once, too, at the full, and round earth's shore
Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled.
But now I only hear
Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,
Retreating, to the breath
Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear
And naked shingles of the world.

Ah, love, let us be true
To one another! for the world, which seems
To lie before us like a land of dreams,
So various, so beautiful, so new,
Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,
Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;
And we are here as on a darkling plain
Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,
Where ignorant armies clash by night.

Arnold, Matthew. "Dover Beach." New Poems. London: MacMillan, 1867.

© Pixabay.com. 2015.

The Human Heritage of Dark Skies

For many people, simply remembering the dark skies and starry nights of their youth and wanting that experience for their children and children’s children is the impetus behind their support of dark sky efforts.  Until several generations ago, before urbanization and the widely available technological ability to overwhelm a landscape with lighting, the stars at night were part of the universal human experience; now an estimated 80% of the developed world is unable to see the Milky Way.

Dark Skies as Resource

Natural Resource

A natural resource is anything that people can use which comes from nature, such as air, water, wood, oil, wind energy, iron, and coal.

Dark skies are a guilt-free natural resource: no extraction cost or risk of environmental damage by virtue of its use.  And, with energy savings there is even payback for replenishing and preserving the dark skies, an unusual and distinctly virtuous cycle.

Cultural Resource

Cultural resources are, in the broadest sense, resources significant to human cultures - the ideas, customs, and social behavior of a society.  Some are part of the universal human experience, like dark skies, some specific to a group of people at a particular time in history with various interpretations of the night skies.  Ethno-astronomy is the study of some of these varieties of interpretation.

The human experience of a dark night is expressed in many ways, art, literature, philosophy, film, and others.

Economic Resource

Economic resources are the factors used in providing services (like astro-tourism or dark-sky experiences) or producing goods.  Dark sky is widely used as a way to develop sustainable destination economies for scenic gateway communities in the American West.

Retention of Community Character

For small towns and rural areas, the arrival of bright lights and large commercial signs threatens the distinctive community character built up and layered over many years.

Private Property Rights

The emerging concept of light trespass is important in the context of private property rights (an issue that, in the Western states, is debated in particularly strong terms) and, in at least several cases, has led some courts to conclude that light trespass is a physical trespass (not unlike pesticide or herbicide drift) and not a less-serious, with lighter sanctions, nuisance.  

explore

  • impact of light pollution on human, wildlife, and ecosystem health

  • sky brightness measuring and monitoring

  • usefulness of the natural dark sky lab of the Wasatch Back and Wasatch Front

  • possible link between light and air pollution

  • planning and urban ecology aspects of lighting design

  • development of the Great Western Starry Way (Glacier-to-Grand Canyon NPs) concentration of dark sky places

support

  • designation of International Dark Sky Places

  • dark sky interpretation in the public lands through internships and citizen-science programs

  • dark sky economic development and tourism

  • communities seeking to adopt dark sky lighting and signage ordinances

  • bird migration "lights out" programs

  • programs addressing social justice issues pertaining to dark sky access

address